Jump to:
Global sea level rise | Understanding sea level | Research groups | Trends and projections | Impacts | Graphics and visualisations | News
Components of sea level rise | Solid-Earth | Oceans | Land ice | Hydrology
Instruments and data | Altimetry | GRACE | CRYOSAT-2 | ENVISAT | ICESAT | Argo buoys | Tide gauges | River gauges
Methods and software | Bayesian Hierarchical Model | Similar approaches

Global sea level rise

Understanding sea level

Sea level change portal (NASA)
Global sea level (NOAA)
• Regional sea-level change and coastal impacts (WCRP)
Regional sea-level change and coastal impacts (CLIVAR)
• Sea level rise (CSIRO)

Back to top

Research groups

• Sea level group (University of Colorado)
• Sea level program (ESA climate change initiative)
Sea level center (University of Hawaii)

Back to top

Trends and projections

• Chapter 13: Sea Level Change from IPCC Climate Change 2013 (AR5): The Physical Science Basis.
Global and European sea level indicator (European Environment Agency)
• Case studies: Satellite observations in support of climate challenges (CEOS EO Handbook)
• Special issue of Surveys in Geophysics: ISSI Workshop on “Integrative Study of the Mean Sea Level and its Components” (2017)
• Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise by Hay, Morrow, Kopp and Mitrovica (2015). Published in Nature 517, 481–484.
• An increase in the rate of global mean sea level rise since 2010 by Yi, Sun, Heki and Qian (2015). Published in Geophysical Research Letters Volume 42, Issue 10, Pages 3998–4006.
• Unabated global mean sea-level rise over the satellite altimeter era by Watson, White, Church, King, Burgette and Legresy (2015). Published in Nature Climate Change 5, 565–568.
• Twentieth century sea level: An enigma by Munk (2002). Published in PNAS volume. 99, number.10, pages 6550-6555.

Back to top


• Chapter 5: Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas in Climate Change 2014 (AR5): Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability.
• Mapping Choices: Carbon, Climate, and Rising Seas, Our Global Legacy. A Climate Central Research Report by Strauss, Kulp and Levermann (2015).
The Global Impacts of Extreme Sea-Level Rise: A Comprehensive Economic Assessment by Pycroft, Abrell and Ciscar (2016). Published in Environmental and Resource Economics, Volume 64, Issue 2, pp 225–253.
• Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding – A Global Assessment by Neumann , Vafeidis, Zimmermann and Nicholls (2015). Published in PLOS ONE 10(3): e0118571.

Back to top

Graphics and visualisations

• What is Sea Level? animation (Henry Reich, MinutePhysics)
• Sea level rise infographic (NASA)
Animated spiral of sea level rise 1913 to 2016 (Ed Hawkins)
Global sea level rise 1992 to 2014 (NASA)
Global sea level trends map (NOAA)
• Sea level rise maps (Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, CReSIS)
Coastal Risk Zone Map (Climate Central)
Seeing Choices (Climate Central)
Mapping Choices (Climate Central)
• Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts map (NOAA, for North America only)
• Polar Explorer sea level app (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University)

Back to top

Sea level news

• The Guardian
• Scientific American
• AGU Earth & Space Science
World Resources Institute
• Surging Seas by Climate Central

Back to top

Components of sea level rise


• EGU Tectonics and Structural Geology Division
• EGU Geodesy Division

Back to top


EGU Ocean Sciences Division
• National Oceanographic Centre
• Center for Topographic studies of the Ocean and Hydrosphere
• NASA JPL Ocean Surface Topography from Space
• Sea Surface Temperature program (ESA Climate Change Initiative)
• Scripps Institution of Oceanography
• Ocean and Ice Processes (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory)

Graphics and visualisations:

• Animation of sea surface temperature (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory)
• Circulation of the Southern Ocean (National Computational Infrastructure)
Ocean Currents and Circulation datasets (Science on a Sphere, NOAA)

Research projects:

• ECCO – Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean

Back to top

Land ice

EGU Cryospheric Sciences Division
Climate and Cryosphere (WCRP)
National Snow and Ice Data Centre
The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets
• Ocean and Ice Processes (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory)
• British Antarctic Survey
• Arctic Research Programme and Arctic Office (NERC)
Polar Portal (Danish Arctic research institutions)
Arctic Program and Report Card (NOAA)
• Greenland Ice Sheet program (ESA Climate Change Initiative)
• Antarctic Ice Sheet program (ESA Climate Change Initiative)
• Glaciers program (ESA Climate Change Initiative)
Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS)
World Glacier Monitoring Service
Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling

Graphics and visualisations:

Global Ice Viewer (NASA)
Age of sea ice animation (NASA Earth Observatory)
• Assorted global sea ice graphics (ArctischePinguin)
• Animated spiral of global sea ice area 1978 to 2017 (Ed Hawkins)
• Graph of Arctic sea ice volume spiral 1979 to 2016 (Andy Robinson)
• Animated Arctic sea ice volume spiral 1979 to 2016 (Ed Hawkins)
• Snow and Ice datasets (Science on a Sphere, NOAA)

Research projects:

RATES – Resolving Antarctic ice mass TrEndS (University of Bristol)
Operation IceBridge (NASA)
IMBIE – Ice sheet mass balance inter-comparison exercise (ESA/Nasa). Summarised here.
PROMICE – Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Danish Energy Agency)
GoLIVE – Global Land Ice Velocity Extraction from Landsat 8 (NSIDC)

Back to top


• EGU Hydrological Sciences Division
• Global Hydrology Resource Center
• Utrect University Global Hydrology website
• Estimates of Freshwater Discharge from Continents: Latitudinal and Seasonal Variations by Dai and Trenberth (2002). Published in Journal of Hydrometeorology 3, 660–687.

Back to top

Instruments and data

NCAR/UCAR Climate Data Centre


Radar Altimeter Database System
NOAA/NESDIS/STAR Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry
ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative


University of Texas
University of Colorado

Graphics and visualisations:

University of Colorado GRACE data portal


ESA Earth Online


ESA Earth Online



Argo buoys


Tide gauges

• Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level
Global Sea Level Observing System

River gauges

• Global Runoff Data Centre

Back to top

Methods and software

Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM)

• Bayesian statistics for dummies (Kevin Boone)
• How Bayesian inference works (Brando Rohrer)
• Introduction to Bayesian data analysis – Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 (Rasmus Bååth)
• Multi-variate spatio-temporal modelling software (Andrew Zammit Mangion)
A data-driven approach for assessing ice-sheet mass balance in space and time by Zammit Mangion, Bamber, Schoen and Rougier (2015). Published in Annals of Glaciology, 56, 175-183.
Multivariate spatio-temporal modelling for assessing Antarctica’s present-day contribution to sea-level rise by Zammit Mangion, Rougier, Schoen, Lindgren and Bamber (2015). Published in Environmetrics, 26, 159-177.
Resolving the Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise: A hierarchical modelling framework by Zammit Mangion, Rougier, Bamber and Schoen (2014). Published in Environmetrics, 25, 245-264.

Similar approaches

Comparison of full and empirical Bayes approaches for inferring sea-level changes from tide-gauge data by Piecuch, Huybers and Tingley (2017). Forthcoming in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
Simultaneous estimation of global present-day water transport and glacial isostatic adjustment by Wu, Heflin, Schotman, Vermeersen, Dong, Gross, Ivins, Moore and Owen (2010). Published in Nature Geoscience 3, 642 – 646.

Back to top


• ICE6G GIA model (Peltier)
Regional ElAstic Rebound calculator (REAR)
• WaterGAP global freshwater model

Back to top